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The priest who had himself suffered from scruples , understood her and reassured her. Pauline, the shortest, was no more than 1.
Like all religious she discovered the ups and downs related to differences in temperament, character, problems of sensitivities or infirmities.
After nine years she wrote plainly, "the lack of judgment, education, the touchiness of some characters, all these things do not make life very pleasant.
I know very well that these moral weaknesses are chronic, that there is no hope of cure". But the greatest suffering came from outside Carmel.
On 23 June , Louis Martin disappeared from his home and was found days later, in the post office in Le Havre. He died on July 29, She wrote, "I applied myself especially to practice little virtues, not having the facility to perform great ones She absorbed the work of John of the Cross , spiritual reading uncommon at the time, especially for such a young nun.
John of the Cross! When I was seventeen and eighteen, I had no other spiritual nourishment Passages from these writings are woven into everything she herself said and wrote.
With the new name a Carmelite receives when she enters the Order, there is always an epithet — example, Teresa of Jesus, Elizabeth of the Trinity , Anne of the Angels.
The epithet singles out the Mystery which she is supposed to contemplate with special devotion. In itself, veneration of the childhood of Jesus was a Carmelite heritage of the seventeenth century — it concentrated upon the staggering humiliation of divine majesty in assuming the shape of extreme weakness and helplessness.
During the course of her novitiate, contemplation of the Holy Face had nourished her inner life. This is an image representing the disfigured face of Jesus during His Passion.
And she meditated on certain passages from the prophet Isaiah Chapter Six weeks before her death she remarked to Pauline, "The words in Isaiah: I, too, wanted to be without comeliness and beauty..
Usually the novitiate preceding profession lasted a year. She would spend eight months longer than the standard year as an unprofessed novice.
It was not until 8 September , aged 17 and a half, that she made her religious profession. The retreat in anticipation of her "irrevocable promises" was characterized by "absolute aridity" and on the eve of her profession she gave way to panic.
She worried that "What she wanted was beyond her. Her vocation was a sham". Let nobody be occupied with me, let me be looked upon as one to be trampled underfoot Jesus, allow me to save very many souls; let no soul be lost today; let all the souls in purgatory be saved..
The years which followed were those of a maturation of her vocation. She accepted criticism in silence, even unjust criticisms, and smiled at the sisters who were unpleasant to her.
She prayed always much for priests, and in particular for Father Hyacinthe Loyson , a famous preacher who had been a Sulpician and a Dominican novice before becoming a Carmelite and provincial of his order, but who had left the Catholic Church in Three years later he married a young Protestant widow, with whom he had a son.
After excommunication had been pronounced against him, he continued to travel round France giving lectures. She offered her last communion, 19 August , for Father Loyson.
The chaplain of the Carmel, Father Youf insisted a lot on the fear of Hell. The preachers of spiritual retreats at that time did not refrain from stressing sin, the sufferings of purgatory , and those of hell.
She wrote, "My soul was like a book which the priest read better than I did. He launched me full sail on the waves of confidence and love which held such an attraction for me, but upon which I had not dared to venture.
He told me that my faults did not offend God. She said, "But it is especially the Gospels which sustain me during my hours of prayer, for in them I find what is necessary for my poor little soul.
I am constantly discovering in them new lights, hidden and mysterious meanings. She looked directly for the word of Jesus, which shed light on her prayers and on her daily life.
If asked where she lived, she reflected, must not she be able to answer with Christ, "The foxes have their lairs, the birds of heaven their nests, but I have no place to rest my head.
Like Zacchaeus , we climbed a tree to see Jesus and now let us listen to what he is saying to us. Make haste to descend, I must lodge today at your house.
Well, Jesus tells us to descend? She repeated how important respect for the Rule was: Each must act as if the perfection of the Order depended on her personal conduct.
She said, "When you stop watching the infallible compass [of obedience], as quickly the mind wanders in arid lands where the water of grace is soon lacking.
Over the next few years she revealed a talent for clarifying doctrine to those who had not received as much education as she. A kaleidoscope, whose three mirrors transform scraps of coloured paper into beautiful designs, provided an inspired illustration for the Holy Trinity.
Jesus, who regards us through the little lens, that is to say, through Himself, always sees beauty in everything we do. But if we left the focus of inexpressible love, what would He see?
Bits of straw … dirty, worthless actions". When I think how much I have to acquire! Jesus Himself will fill your soul with treasures in the same measure that you move your imperfections out of the way.
It was an effective means of achieving interior poverty, a way to remove a place to rest her head" . As a novice she would always have to ask permission of the other, full sisters.
She would never be elected to any position of importance. Remaining closely associated with the other novices, she could continue to care for her spiritual charges.
In Jules Michelet devoted the major part of the fifth volume of his History of France to a favourable presentation of the epic of Joan of Arc , the Maid of Orleans.
But, by the end of , six full calendar years as a Carmelite made her realize how small and insignificant she was. She saw the limitations of all her efforts.
She remained small and very far off from the unfailing love that she would wish to practice. From the Book of Isaiah As one whom the mother caresseth, so will I comfort you.
It is only in Manuscript C of her autobiography that she gave to this discovery the name of little way, petite voie. I will seek out a means of getting to Heaven by a little way—very short and very straight, a little way that is wholly new.
We live in an age of inventions; nowadays the rich need not trouble to climb the stairs, they have lifts instead.
Well, I mean to try and find a lift by which I may be raised unto God, for I am too tiny to climb the steep stairway of perfection.
To get there I need not grow; on the contrary, I must remain little, I must become still less. In her quest for sanctity, she believed that it was not necessary to accomplish heroic acts, or great deeds , in order to attain holiness and to express her love of God.
Great deeds are forbidden me. The only way I can prove my love is by scattering flowers and these flowers are every little sacrifice, every glance and word, and the doing of the least actions for love.
This little way of Therese is the foundation of her spirituality. Sometimes, when I read spiritual treatises in which perfection is shown with a thousand obstacles, surrounded by a crowd of illusions, my poor little mind quickly tires.
I close the learned book which is breaking my head and drying up my heart, and I take up Holy Scripture. Leaving to great souls, to great minds, the beautiful books I cannot understand, I rejoice to be little because only children, and those who are like them, will be admitted to the heavenly banquet.
The theme of fire would assume an increasingly great place in her writings. In the evening of this life, I shall appear before You with empty hands, for I do not ask you lord to count my works..
In the Oblation she wrote, " If through weakness I should chance to fall, may a glance from Your Eyes straightway cleanse my soul, and consume all my imperfections — as fire transforms all things into itself ".
At age 14, she understood her vocation to pray for priests, to be "an apostle to apostles". In September , at her canonical examination before she professed her religious vows, she was asked why she had come to Carmel.
She answered "I came to save souls, and especially to pray for priests". She wrote to her sister "Our mission as Carmelites is to form evangelical workers who will save thousands of souls whose mothers we shall be.
It is she who consoles and warns, encourages and praises, answers questions, offers corroboration, and instructs the priests in the meaning of her little way ".
After observing a rigorous Lenten fast in , she went to bed on the eve of Good Friday and felt a joyous sensation.
I had scarcely laid my head upon the pillow when I felt something like a bubbling stream mounting to my lips. Coughing up of blood meant tuberculosis, and tuberculosis meant death.
I was able to see that I was not mistaken. As a result of tuberculosis, she suffered terribly. When she was near death, "Her physical suffering kept increasing so that even the doctor himself was driven to exclaim, "Ah!
If you only knew what this young nun was suffering! On August 19, , she received her last communion. She died on 30 September , aged On her death-bed, she is reported to have said, "I have reached the point of not being able to suffer any more, because all suffering is sweet to me.
Her body was exhumed in September and the remains placed in a lead coffin and transferred to another tomb. It contains her ribcage and other remnants of her body.
To the right and to the left, I throw to my little birds the good grain that God places in my hands. And then I let things take their course!
I busy myself with it no more. But God tells me: She is approachable, due in part to her historical proximity. As a Doctor of the Church , she is the subject of much theological comment and study, and, as a young woman whose message has touched the lives of millions, she remains the focus of much popular devotion.
During her life, the poem was sent to various religious communities and was included in a notebook of her poems.
She also left letters, poems, religious plays, prayers, and her last conversations were recorded by her sisters. I have a horror of pretence", and she spoke out against some of the claims made concerning the lives of saints written in her day, "We should not say improbable things, or things we do not know.
We must see their real, and not their imagined lives". In the face of her littleness she trusted to God her sanctity. She wanted to go to heaven by an entirely new little way.
The elevator, she wrote, would be the arms of Jesus lifting her in all her littleness. The ceremony of taking the veil followed on the 24th, when she added to her name in religion, "of the Holy Face", a title which was to become increasingly important in the development and character of her inner life.
In her poem "My Heaven down here" , composed in , Therese expressed the notion that by the divine union of love, the soul takes on the semblance of Christ.
By contemplating the sufferings associated with the Holy Face of Jesus, she felt she could become closer to Christ. She pinned the prayer in a small container over her heart.
In August , in her "Canticle to the Holy Face," she wrote: Ah, You know, Your sweet Face is for me Heaven on earth. My love discovers the charms of Your Face adorned with tears.
I smile through my own tears when I contemplate Your sorrows. She wrote, " He sees it disfigured, covered with blood! And yet the divine Child does not tremble; this is what He chooses to show His love ".
She composed the "Holy Face Prayer for Sinners", " Eternal Father, since Thou hast given me for my inheritance the adorable Face of Thy Divine Son, I offer that face to Thee and I beg Thee, in exchange for this coin of infinite value, to forget the ingratitude of souls dedicated to Thee and to pardon all poor sinners.
It is a compilation of three separate manuscripts. The first, in is a memoir of her childhood, written under obedience to the Prioress, Mother Agnes of Jesus, her older sister Pauline.
Mother Agnes gave the order after being prompted by their eldest sister, Sister Marie of the Sacred Heart. She authorized Pauline to make any changes deemed necessary.
Aside from considerations of style, Mother Marie de Gonzague had ordered Pauline to alter the first two sections of the manuscript to make them appear as if they were addressed to Mother Marie as well.
However, it received a much wider circulation, as copies were lent out and passed around. ICS Publications has issued a complete critical edition of her writings: Even when the images are poorly reproduced, her eyes arrest us.
Described as blue, described as gray, they look darker in photographs. Taylor went on to become a significant proponent of devotion to "The Little Flower" in Scotland.
Carfin became a site of pilgrimages. The impact of The Story of a Soul , a collection of her autobiographical manuscripts, printed and distributed a year after her death to an initially very limited audience, was significant.
Pope Pius XI made her the "star of his pontificate". Pope Benedict XV , in order to hasten the process, dispensed with the usual fifty-year delay required between death and beatification.
She was beatified on 29 April According to one account, "Ropes, lamps and tallows were pulled from the dusty storerooms where they had been packed away for 55 years.
A few old workmen who remembered how it was done the last time — in — directed men for two weeks as they climbed about fastening lamps to St.
According to the Times , over 60, people, estimated to be the largest crowd inside St. She rapidly became one of the most popular saints of the twentieth century.
Her feast day was added to the General Roman Calendar in for celebration on October 3. She is also considered by Catholics to be the patron saint of Russia, [ citation needed ] although the Russian Orthodox Church does not recognize either her canonization or her patronage.
Zelie and Louis Martin were the first spouses to be proposed for canonization as a couple and the first to be canonized together.
In , the Archbishop of Milan accepted the unexpected cure of Pietro Schiliro, an Italian child born near Milan in with a lung disorder, as a miracle attributable to their intercession.
Announced by Cardinal Saraiva Martins on 12 July , at the ceremonies marking the th anniversary of the marriage of the Venerable Zelie and Louis Martin , their beatification as a couple took place on 19 October ,  in Lisieux.
On 21 May , the diocesan process to examine the miracle closed and the dossier was sent to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints in Rome.
Leonie entered religious life three times before her fourth and final entrance in at the Monastery of the Visitation at Caen. She died in in Caen ,  where her tomb in the crypt of the Visitation Monastery has been visited by the public.
The relics of St. They were brought to Ireland in the summer of Although Cardinal Basil Hume had declined to endorse proposals for a tour in , her relics finally visited England and Wales in late September and early October , including an overnight stop at the Anglican York Minster on her feast day, 1 October.
A quarter of a million people venerated them. They remained in the country until October 5, The National Shrine of St. The Basilica of St.
The basilica can seat 3, people. Orne — Orne is a department in the northwest of France, named after the river Orne. Orne is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution, on 4 March and it was created from parts of the former provinces of Normandy and Perche.
There are no industrial centres, agriculture remains the economic focus of Orne. The inhabitants of the department are called Ornais, the recorded population level peaked at , in Camembert, the village where Camembert cheese is made, is located in Orne, the local dialect is known as Augeron.
French Third Republic — It came to an end on 10 July Harsh reparations exacted by the Prussians after the war resulted in the loss of the French regions of Alsace and Lorraine, social upheaval, and the establishment of the Paris Commune.
The early governments of the Third Republic considered re-establishing the monarchy, but confusion as to the nature of that monarchy, thus, the Third Republic, which was originally intended as a provisional government, instead became the permanent government of France.
The French Constitutional Laws of defined the composition of the Third Republic and it consisted of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate to form the legislative branch of government and a president to serve as head of state.
The period from the start of World War I to the late s featured sharply polarized politics, Adolphe Thiers called republicanism in the s the form of government that divides France least, however, politics under the Third Republic were sharply polarized.
On the left stood Reformist France, heir to the French Revolution, on the right stood conservative France, rooted in the peasantry, the Roman Catholic Church and the army.
The deputies then selected General Louis-Jules Trochu to serve as its president and this first government of the Third Republic ruled during the Siege of Paris.
After the French surrender in January , the provisional Government of National Defence disbanded, French territories occupied by Prussia at this time did not participate.
The resulting conservative National Assembly elected Adolphe Thiers as head of a provisional government, due to the revolutionary and left-wing political climate that prevailed in the Parisian population, the right-wing government chose the royal palace of Versailles as its headquarters.
The new government negotiated a settlement with the newly proclaimed German Empire. To prompt the Prussians to leave France, the government passed a variety of laws, such as the controversial Law of Maturities.
The following repression of the communards would have consequences for the labor movement. Chambord believed the monarchy had to eliminate all traces of the Revolution in order to restore the unity between the monarchy and the nation, which the revolution had sundered apart.
Compromise on this was if the nation were to be made whole again. Lisieux — Lisieux is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
It is the capital of the Pays dAuge area, which is characterised by valleys, the name of the town derives from the Latin Noviomagus Lexoviorum.
Owing to the number of similarly-named cities, however, it was necessary to specify where this one was located.
The local French demonym Lexoviens derives from the Latin as well, Lisieux was the capital of the Lexovii. In his work, Commentaries on the Gallic War, Caesar mentions a Gallic oppidum, the oppidum has been pinpointed to a place referred to as le Castellier, located 3 kilometers to the southwest of the town.
However the Gallo-Roman city was in fact located where Lisieux is to be found today, Lisieux was an important center of power in medieval times.
The bishopric of Lisieux controlled most of the Pays dAuge by the 12th century, the main judge of Joan of Arc, Pierre Cauchon, became a bishop of Lisieux after her death and is buried in the Lady Chapel of the cathedral.
He commissioned the building of the chapel of the cathedral. Lisieux is situated on the confluence of the river Touques and many of its tributaries, the town is in the heart of the Pays dAuge, of which it is the capital.
Lisieux is therefore surrounded by Normandys typical hedged farmland, where there is a mix of livestock farming, Lisieux has a temperate oceanic humid climate.
Calvados department — Calvados is a department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. It takes its name from a cluster of rocks off the English Channel coast, Calvados is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March It was created from a part of the province of Normandy.
It is more likely, however, that the name Calvados was derived from calva dorsa, meaning bare backs, after the allied victory at Waterloo the department was occupied by Prussian troops between June and November On 6 June , the Allied forces landed on the beaches of the Bay of the Seine in what known as the Battle of Normandy.
Calvados belongs to the region of Normandy and is surrounded by the departments of Seine-Maritime, Eure, Orne, to the north is the Baie de la Seine, part of the English Channel.
The most notable places in Calvados include Deauville and the formerly elegant 19th-century casino resorts of the coast, agriculture dominates the economy of Calvados.
One of the advantage of Calvados is to be fairly near large urban centers, Calvados is therefore often preferred for holidays and for weekends and sometimes considered as the countryside of Paris.
Calvados, via the port of Ouistreham, is an entrance to the continent from Britain, there are two airports, Caen-Carpiquet and Deauville-Saint Gatien.
He was the first sovereign of Vatican City from its creation as an independent state on 11 February and he took as his papal motto, Pax Christi in Regno Christi, translated The Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ.
During his pontificate, the hostility with the Italian government over the status of the papacy. Pius XI created the feast of Christ the King in response to anti-clericalism and he took a strong interest in fostering the participation of lay people throughout the Catholic Church, especially in the Catholic Action movement.
The end of his pontificate was dominated by speaking out against Hitler and Mussolini and defending the Catholic Church from intrusions into Catholic life and he died on 10 February in the Apostolic Palace and is buried in the Papal Grotto of Saint Peters Basilica.
In the course of excavating space for his tomb, two levels of burial grounds were uncovered which revealed bones now venerated as the bones of St.
Achille Ratti was born in Desio, in the province of Milan, in and he was ordained a priest in and embarked on an academic career within the Church.
He obtained three doctorates at the Gregorian University in Rome, and then from to was a professor at the seminary in Padua and his scholarly specialty was as an expert paleographer, a student of ancient and medieval Church manuscripts.
Eventually, he left teaching to work full-time at the Ambrosian Library in Milan. During this time, he edited and published an edition of the Ambrosian Missal and he became chief of the Library in and undertook a thorough programme of restoration and re-classification of the Ambrosians collection.
He was also a mountaineer in his spare time, reaching the summits of Monte Rosa. The combination of a pope would not be seen again until the pontificate of John Paul II.
In , at Pope Pius Xs invitation, he moved to the Vatican to become Vice-Prefect of the Vatican Library, in October , Benedict was the first head of state to congratulate the Polish people on the occasion of the restoration of their independence.
In March , he nominated ten new bishops and, soon after, Ratti was consecrated as a titular archbishop in October Benedict XV and Nuncio Ratti repeatedly cautioned Polish authorities against persecuting the Lithuanian and Ruthenian clergy, Ratti intended to work for Poland by building bridges to men of goodwill in the Soviet Union, even to shedding his blood for Russia.
Benedict, however, needed Ratti as a diplomat, not as a martyr, the nuncios continued contacts with Russians did not generate much sympathy for him within Poland at the time.
After Pope Benedict sent Ratti to Silesia to forestall potential political agitation within the Polish Catholic clergy, on 20 November, when German Cardinal Adolf Bertram announced a papal ban on all political activities of clergymen, calls for Rattis expulsion climaxed.
Shrine — A shrine is a holy or sacred place, which is dedicated to a specific deity, ancestor, hero, martyr, saint, daemon, or similar figure of awe and respect, at which they are venerated or worshipped.
Shrines often contain idols, relics, or other objects associated with the figure being venerated. A shrine at which offerings are made is called an altar.
Shrines can be found in various settings, such as churches, temples, cemeteries, or in the home, a shrine may become a focus of a cult image.
Many shrines are located buildings and in the temples designed specifically for worship, such as a church in Christianity. A shrine here is usually the centre of attention in the building, in such cases, adherents of the faith assemble within the building in order to venerate the deity at the shrine.
In classical temple architecture, the shrine may be synonymous with the cella, historically, in Hinduism, Buddhism and Roman Catholicism, and also in modern faiths, such as Neopaganism, a shrine can commonly be found within the home or shop.
This shrine is usually a structure or a setup of pictures and figurines dedicated to a deity that is part of the official religion.
Small household shrines are common among the Chinese and people from South and Southeast Asia, whether Hindu. Usually a small lamp and small offerings are kept daily by the shrine, Buddhist household shrines must be on a shelf above the head, Chinese shrines must stand directly on the floor.
Small outdoor yard shrines are found at the bottom of many gardens, following various religions, including historically.
Shrines are found in most, though not all, religions, Shrines therefore attract the practice of pilgrimage. Shrines are found in many, though not all, forms of Christianity, Roman Catholicism, the largest denomination of Christianity, has many shrines, as do Orthodox Christianity and Anglicanism.
For a shrine to be described as national, the approval of the Episcopal Conference is necessary, for it to be described as international, the approval of the Holy See is required.
Another use of the shrine in colloquial Catholic terminology is a niche or alcove in most — especially larger — churches used by parishioners when praying privately in the church.
They were also called Devotional Altars, since they could look like small Side Altars or bye-altars, Shrines were always centered on some image of Christ or a saint — for instance, a statue, painting, mural or mosaic, and may have had a reredos behind them.
However, Mass would not be celebrated at them, they were used to aid or give a visual focus for prayers. Side altars, where Mass could actually be celebrated, were used in a way to shrines by parishioners.
Saint symbolism — Christianity has used symbolism from its very beginnings. Each saint has a story and a reason why he or she led an exemplary life, symbols have been used to tell these stories throughout the history of the Church.
A number of Christian saints are traditionally represented by a symbol or iconic motif associated with their life, termed an attribute or emblem, the study of these forms part of iconography in art history.
They were particularly used so that the illiterate could recognize a scene and they are often carried in the hand by the Saint.
Attributes often vary with time or geography, especially between Eastern Christianity and the West.
Orthodox images more often contained inscriptions with the names of saints, many of the most prominent saints, like Saint Peter and Saint John the Evangelist can also be recognised by a distinctive facial type — as can Christ.
Some attributes are general, such as the palm frond carried by martyrs, the use of a symbol in a work of art depicting a Saint reminds people who is being shown and of their story.
The older branch of the order, Carmelites of the Ancient Observance, has the initials O. Carm, the secular branch of the order, has the initials O.
The Discalced Carmelites are men and women, in religious consecration and lay people, the Carmelite nuns live in cloistered monasteries and follow a completely contemplative life.
The Carmelite friars while following a contemplative life also engage in the promotion of spirituality through their centres, parishes and churches.
Lay people, known as the Secular Order, follow their contemplative call in their everyday activities, devotion to the Virgin Mary is a characteristic of Carmelites and is symbolised by wearing the brown scapular.
Carmelites trace their roots and their name to Mount Carmel in the Holy Land, there, in the 13th century, a band of European men gathered together to live a simple life of prayer.
The first Carmelites came as pilgrims to Mount Carmel to live a solitary life-style and these early hermits were mostly laity, who lived an unofficial religious life of poverty, penance and prayer.
Between and , St. Albert, Patriarch of Jerusalem, brought the hermits on Mount Carmel together, at their request, into community.
He wrote them a formula for living, which expressed their own intention and reflected the spirit of the pilgrimage to the Holy Land and they were also inspired by the prophet Elijah who had been associated with Mount Carmel.
That influence can be seen by the words of Elijah, I have been zealous for the Lord. Within fifty years of receiving their rule the Carmelite hermits were forced to leave Mount Carmel, although Carmel itself contributed a number of gifted and respected humanists, the trend which started out as a good thing occasioned a general decline in religious fervor.
This factor, coupled with the decimation of the population and severe economic hardships, had a demoralizing effect, many Carmelites and even whole communities succumbed to contemporary attitudes and conditions diametrically opposed to their original vocation.
To meet this situation the Rule was mitigated several times, consequently, the Carmelites bore less and less resemblance to the first hermits of Mount Carmel.
Teresa of Avila considered the surest way to prayer to be a return to the Primitive Rule embodying Carmels authentic vocation, on 24 August , the new Convent of St.
In addition to this, St. Teresa envisioned a fully dedicated to poverty. Working in close collaboration with St. Crucifix — A crucifix is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross.
The representation of Jesus himself on the cross is referred to in English as the corpus, the crucifix is a principal symbol for many groups of Christians, and one of the most common forms of the Crucifixion in the arts.
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